With developments in technology and the realization of the harsh reality that human life might someday need to relocate from a dying earth, space exploration is becoming an increasingly important endeavor for humanity.

This paper explores the history of space exploration, current trends, and future possibilities.

Collaborative publication with Dev Kapadia, Audrey Herrald, Anahita Kodali, Kristal Wong, Isaiah Menning, and Sam Neff.

Why did humanity seek to travel to space initially, and why do (and must) we continue to do so?

Space exploration is contingent on the development of capable technology to withstand the extremities of escaping Earth's gravitation and surviving in space.

Governments dedicate trillions of dollars annually to space exploration. Certainly, space exploration is an important endeavor, and most of the money ends up in fostering and developing the scientific tools and knowledge behind space exploration. What is the current state of space science, and what are the latest trends and future possibilities?

A few decades back, space exploration was the province of governments endowed with trillions of taxpayer money. How did private rocketry emerge to challenge the status quo?

Move aside NASA, here comes a new status quo. How is it feasible for privately-owned companies to delve into space exploration, a field that usually lacks immediate returns on investment?1


SpaceX is backed by Elon Musk, the founder of Tesla and most recently buyer of Twitter for a whopping $44 billion. What are some of the achievements and future plans of SpaceX?

Blue Origin

Close on the heels of Elon Musk, Amazon founder Jeff Bezos has also set his sights on space exploration through the Blue Origin company. What have they been up to?

Virgin Galactic

Finally, Richard Branson, the founder of the Virgin Group, also decided to delve into space exploration through Virgin Galactic. What are their plans?

Certainly, space exploration is not just about traveling to space — it is about testing, prototyping in new environments, and studying new environments to develop better solutions for humanity. What are some of the advancements in technology and science that space exploration has fostered?

Making sense of the entire space exploration landscape; what should we expect, and how will it affect our lives?

  1. Perhaps it is not feasible.
    Elon Musk funds SpaceX, Jeff Bezos funds Blue Origin, and Richard Branson funds Virgin Galactic.
    These are billionaires who have the flexibility to fund projects that may not have immediate returns as long as they believe in the promise of eventual advantage in the long run.